There are not any intentions to encompass patients in the dissemination

Diligent involvement

No patients were employed in means the analysis question or even the lead steps, nor was basically it involved in the structure and you will utilization of the fresh new analysis.

Studies solutions

Integrated knowledge have die besten Sikh-Dating-Apps been randomised regulated trials from inside the players aged >50 on baseline that have BMD counted by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) otherwise precursor technical such photon absorptiometry. We integrated knowledge you to said bones nutrient content (BMC) since the BMD are acquired of the dividing BMC because of the bone area and you may in addition to a couple was highly correlated. Training where really players during the baseline got a major endemic cystic besides osteoporosis, eg renal inability otherwise most cancers, was indeed excluded. We provided education off calcium used with other therapy provided additional cures gotten to help you both of your arms (such calcium supplements in addition to nutritional K rather than placebo together with supplement K), and you may degree out-of co-given calcium supplements and you may supplement D medicine (CaD). Randomised managed products out of hydroxyapatite while the a nutritional supply of calcium had been incorporated because it is produced from bones features almost every other nutritional elements, hormones, healthy protein, and you may amino acids and additionally calcium supplements. One author (WL or MB) screened titles and abstracts, as well as 2 authors (WL, MB, or VT) alone processed a full text message away from potentially relevant education. The move out-of content was revealed for the profile Good in the appendix 2.

Data extraction and synthesis

I extracted advice out of for each and every study from participants' qualities, data design, investment provider and you can conflicts interesting, and you can BMD during the lumbar back, femoral neck, total cool, forearm, and total human anatomy. BMD might be measured during the numerous sites in the forearm, although the 33% (1/3) radius is actually most frequently used. For every single analysis, i used the stated investigation to your forearm, aside from website. If multiple webpages try advertised, i used the analysis towards the website closest towards the 33% distance. An individual publisher (VT) extracted data, which were checked by one minute blogger (MB). Chance of prejudice is actually analyzed since required in the Cochrane Manual.eleven Any discrepancies have been solved through talk.

The primary endpoints were the percentage changes in BMD from baseline at the five BMD sites. We categorised the studies into three groups by duration: one year was duration <18 months; two years was duration ?18 months and ?2.5 years; and others were studies lasting more than two and a half years. For studies that presented absolute data rather than percentage change from baseline, we calculated the mean percentage change from the raw data and the standard deviation of the percentage change using the approach described in the Cochrane Handbook.11 When data were presented only in figures, we used digital callipers to extract data. In four studies that reported mean data but not measures of spread,12 13 14 15 we imputed the standard deviation for the percentage change in BMD for each site from the average site and duration specific standard deviations of all other studies included in our review. We prespecified subgroup analyses based on the following variables: dietary calcium intake v calcium supplements; risk of bias; calcium monotherapy v CaD; baseline age (<65); sex; community v institutionalised participants; baseline dietary calcium intake <800 mg/day; baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L; calcium dose (?500 v >500 mg/day and <1000 v ?1000 mg/day); and vitamin D dose <800 IU/day.


We pooled the data using random effects meta-analyses and assessed for heterogeneity between studies using the I 2 statistic (I 2 >50% was considered significant heterogeneity). Funnel plots and Egger’s regression model were used to assess for the likelihood of systematic bias. We included randomised controlled trials of calcium with or without vitamin D in the primary analyses. Randomised controlled trials in which supplemental vitamin D was provided to both treatment groups, so that the groups differed only in treatment by calcium, were included in calcium monotherapy subgroup analyses, while those comparing co-administered CaD with placebo or controls were included in the CaD subgroup analyses. We included all available data from trials with factorial designs or multiple arms. Thus, for factorial randomised controlled trials we included all study arms involving a comparison of calcium versus no calcium in the primary analyses and the calcium monotherapy subgroup analysis, but only arms comparing CaD with controls in the CaD subgroup analysis. For multi-arm randomised controlled trials, we pooled data from the separate treatment arms for the primary analyses, but each treatment arm was used only once. We undertook analyses of prespecified subgroups using a random effects model when there were 10 or more studies in the analysis and three or more studies in each subgroup and performed a test for interaction between subgroups. All tests were two tailed, and P<0.05 was considered significant. All analyses were performed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (version 2, Biostat, Englewood, NJ).


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